Giulio Ruffini, PhD

Giulio Ruffini's picture
President, Neuroelectrics


I am CEO of Starlab ( and President of Neuroelectrics ( In the past I have been a researcher at UC Davis and Los Alamos National Laboratory (both as a graduate research student), and a post-doc at the Catalan Institute for Space Studies (IEEC, Barcelona, Spain).


PhD Theoretical Physcis, UC Davis (1995)
BA  Math and Physics, UC Berkley (1988)

Research Interests:

My current research stems from a physics and mathematics background, and my focus rests on the science (biophysical and physiological modeling), technology and clinical applications related to the “electrical brain”, including non-invasive brain stimulation technologies combined with EEG and other neuroimaging techniques. During the EU funded HIVE project (FET Open research program) I coordinated a very capable team to develop a new class of hybrid EEG-transcranial stimulation devices capable of controlling stimulation currents in numerous electrodes. Stemming from that work, I recently led the first demonstration of conscious non-invasive direct brain-to-brain communication. I am currently developing on clinical applications of multifocal transcranial current stimulation (including tDCS, tACS and tRNS), that is, the coordinated stimulation of several brain targets or brain networks derived from neuroimaging, especially in epilepsy, as well as on the uses of EEG for diagnosis in Parkinson’s disease using machine learning techniques.

Selected Publications:

Giulio Ruffini, Michael D. Fox, Oscar Ripolles, Pedro Cavaleiro Miranda, Alvaro Pascual-Leone,  Optimization of multifocal transcranial current stimulation for weighted cortical pattern targeting from realistic modeling of electric fields, NeuroImage 70, 48-58 (2013)
G Ruffini, F Wendling, I Merlet, B Molaee-Ardekani, A Mekkonen, R Salvador, A Soria-Frisch, C Grau, S Dunne, P. Miranda,  Transcranial Current Brain Stimulation (tCS): Models and TechnologiesIEEE Transactions on Neural systems and Rehabilitation Engineering, 21 (3), 2013
D.B. Fischer, P.J. Fried, G. Ruffini, O. Ripolles, R. Salvador, J. Banus, W.T. Ketchabaw, E. Santarnecchi, A. Pascual-Leone, M.D. Fox, Multifocal tDCS targeting the resting state motor network increases cortical excitability beyond traditional tDCS targeting unilateral motor cortex, NeuroImage 05/2017; 157
Moria Dagan,Talia Herman, Rachel Harrison, Junhong Zhou, Nir Giladi, Giulio Ruffini, Brad Manor,and Jeffrey M. Hausdorff, Multitarget Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation for Freezing of Gait in Parkinson’s Disease,  Movement Disorders, Vol. 00, No. 00, 2018
Behnam Molaee-Ardekani, Javier Márquez-Ruiz, Isabelle Merlet, Rocio Leal-Campanario, Agnès Gruart, Raudel Sánchez-Campusano, Gwenael Birot, Giulio Ruffini, José-Maria Delgado-García, Fabrice Wendling,  Effects of transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) on cortical activity: A computational modeling study. Brain Stimulation 02/2012;  
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