Haskins Laboratories

The Science of the Spoken and Written Word


President and Director of Research, Haskins Laboratories, 1975-86
Emeritus Professor of Psychology, University of Connecticut
Emeritus Professor of Linguistics, Yale University
Senior Scientist, Haskins Laboratories

A.B., A.M., University of Missouri
Ph.D., Yale University


National Academy of Sciences
1988 F. O. Schmitt Medal and Prize in Neuroscience
Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award, American Psychological Association, 1980
American Academy of Arts and Sciences
Warren Medal, Society of Experimental Psychologists
Docteur Honoris Causa, Universite Libre de Bruxelles
Honorary Doctor of Science Degree, State University of New York,
Binghamton, New York
University of Connecticut Alumni Association Award for Excellence in Research
University of Connecticut Alumni Association Distinguished Professor
Fellow, Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, 1964-65
Society of Experimental Psychologists
Fellow, Acoustical Society of America
Fellow, American Psychological Association
Guggenheim Fellow, 1964-65
Connecticut Academy of Science and Engineering
Senior Fellow, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, 1971
Associate, Neurosciences Research Program, 1978-1987
Medal, College de France
Massachusetts Institute of Technology Corporation Visiting Committee
(Presidential Appointee), Department of Psychology, 1976-1982
Massachusetts Institute of Technology Corporation Visiting Committee
(Presidential Appointee), (Whitaker College), 1986-1990
Member, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, National Research Council
Chairman, Advisory Committee to Department of Linguistics, Yale University

Liberman, A. M. (1944). The effect of interpolated activity on spontaneous recovery from experimental extinction. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 34, 282-301.

Cooper, F. S., Liberman, A. M., and J. M. Borst. (1951). The interconversion of audible and visible patterns as a basis for research on the perception of speech. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 37, 318-325.

Liberman, A. M. (1951). A comparison of transfer effects during acquisition and extinction of two instrumental responses. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 41, 192-198.

Delattre, P. C., Liberman, A. M., and F. S. Cooper. (1951). Voyelles synthetiques a deux formantes et voyelles cardinales. Le Maitre Phonetique, 96, 30-36.

Liberman, A. M., Delattre, P. C., and F. S. Cooper. (1952). The role of selected stimulus variables in the perception of unvoiced stop consonants. American Journal of Psychology, 65, 497-516.

Cooper, F. S., Delattre, P. C., Liberman, A. M., Borst, J. M., and L. J. Gerstman. (1952). Some experiments on the perception of synthetic speech sounds. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 24, 597-606.

Liberman, A. M., Delattre, P. C., Gerstman, L. J., and F. S. Cooper. (1956). Tempo of frequency change as a cue for distinguishing classes of speech sounds. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 52,127-137.

Liberman, A. M., Harris, K. S., Hoffman, H., and B. Griffith. (1957). The discrimination of speech sounds within and across phoneme boundaries. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 54, 358-368.

Liberman, A. M. (1957). Some results of research on speech perception. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 29, 117-123.

Liberman, A. M., Delattre, P. C., and F. S. Cooper. (1958). Some cues for the distinction between voiced and voiceless stops in initial position. Language and Speech, 1, 153-167.

Liberman, A. M., Ingemann, F., Lisker, L., Delattre, P. C., and F. S. Cooper. (1959). Minimal rules for synthesizing speech. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 31, 1490-1499.

Liberman, A. M., Harris, K. S., Eimas, P., and L. Lisker. (1961). An effect of learning on speech perception: The discrimination of durations of silence with and without phonemic significance. Language and Speech, 4, 175-195.

Liberman, A. M., Harris, K. S., Kinney, J. A., and H. Lane. (1961). The discrimination of relative onset-time of the components of certain speech and non-speech patterns. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 61, 379-388.

Studdert-Kennedy, M. and A.M. Liberman. (1962). Psychological considerations in the design of reading machines for the blind. Proceedings of the International Congress on Technology and Blindness, 1, 289-304.

Liberman, A. M., Cooper, F. S., Harris, K. S., and P. J. MacNeilage. (1963). A motor theory of speech perception. Proceedings of the Symposium on Speech Communication Seminar, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm. Paper D3, Vol. II.

Liberman, A. M., Cooper, F. S., Shankweiler, D. P., & M. Studdert-Kennedy. (1967). Perception of the speech code. Psychological Review, 74, 431-461.

Liberman, A. M., Cooper, F. S., M. Studdert-Kennedy. (1968). Why are spectrograms hard to read? American Annals of the Deaf, 113, 127-133.

Liberman, A. M., Cooper, F. S., Studdert-Kennedy, M., Harris, K. S., & D. P. Shankweiler. (1968). On the efficiency of speech sounds. Z. Phonetick. Sprachwissenschaft und Kommunikationsforschung, 21, 21-32.

Stevens, K. N., Liberman, A. M., Ohman, S. E. G., & M. Studdert-Kennedy. (1969). Cross-language study of vowel perception. Language and Speech, 12,(1), 1-23.

Mattingly, I. G. & A. M. Liberman. (1970). The speech code and the physiology of language. In: Information Processing in the Nervous System, K.N. Leibovic, Ed. (pp. 97-117). Springer Verlag.

Liberman, A. M. (1970). The Grammars of Speech and Language. Cognitive Psychology, 1, 301-323.

Liberman, A. M. (1970). Some characteristics of perception in the speech mode. Perception and its Disorders 48, 238-254. Discrimination in speech and nonspeech modes. Cognitive Psychology, 2, 131-157.

Liberman, A. M., Mattingly, I. G., & M.T. Turvey. (1972). Language codes and memory codes. In: Coding Processes in Human Memory, A.W. Melton and E. Martin, Eds. (pp. 307-334) V.H. Winston and Sons.

Liberman, A. M. & F. S. Cooper. (1972). In search of the acoustic cues. In: Papers on Linguistics and Phonetics to the Memory of Pierre Delattre, A. Valdman, Ed. (pp. 329-338). Mouton, The Hague.

Liberman, A. M. (1974). Language processing: State-of-the-art report. In: Sensory Capabilities of Hearing-Impaired Children, R. Stark, Ed. (pp. 129-141). University Park Press, Baltimore.

Liberman, A. M. (1974). The specialization of the language hemisphere. In: The Neurosciences: Third Study Program, F. O. Schmitt and F. G. Worden, Eds. (pp. 43-53). MIT Press.

Liberman, A. M. (1974). The speech code. In: Communication, language, and meaning. G. A. Miller (Ed.). (pp. 128-140). New York: Basic Books.

Miyawaki, K., Strange, W., Verbrugge, R., Liberman, A. M., & J. J. Jenkins. (1975). An effect of linguistic experience: The discrimination of [r] and [l] by native speakers of Japanese and English. Perception and Psychophysics, Vol. 18, (5), 331-340.

Liberman, A. M.& D. B. Pisoni. (1977). Evidence for a special speech-perceiving subsystem in the human. In: The Recognition of Complex Acoustic Signals, ed. by T.H. Bullock. (Berlin: Dahlem Konferenzen), 59-76.

Liberman, A. M.& M. Studdert-Kennedy. (1978). Phonetic perception. In: Held, R., Leibowitz, H. and H-L. Teuber (eds.). Handbook of Sensory Physiology, Vol. VIII, Perception (Heidelberg: Springer Verlag) 143-178.

Liberman, I. Y., Shankweiler, D., Liberman, A. M., Fowler, C., F. S. Fischer. (1978). Phonetic segmentation and recoding in the beginning reader. In: Reading: The CUNY Conference, by A.S. Reber and D. Scarborough (New York: Erlbaum Associates), 207-225.

Liberman, A. M. (1979). How abstract must a motor theory of speech perception be? Revue de Phonetique Appliquee. (Proceedings of the Plenary Addresses of the VIIIth International Congress of Phonetic Sciences.) Universite De L’Etat Mons, Belgium, 49/50, 41-58.

Liberman, A. M. (1979). An ethological approach to language through the study of speech perception. In: Human Ethology, ed. by M. von Cranach, K. Foppa, W. Lepenies, and D. Ploog. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), 682-704.

Liberman, I. Y., Liberman, A. M., Mattingly, I. G., & D. Shankweiler. (1980). Orthography and the beginning reader. In: Orthography, Reading, and Dyslexia, ed. by J. F. Kavanagh and R. Venezky. (Baltimore: University Park Press), 137-153.

Liberman, A. M. (1982). On finding that speech is special. American Psychologist, 37(2), 148-167. (Reprinted In: Handbook of Cognitive Neuroscience, ed by Michael S. Gazzaniga. (1984) Plenum Press: New York, 169-197.)

Liberman, A. M. (1983).What a perception-production link does for language. The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, Vol. 6, Number 2, p. 216.

Liberman, A. M., & I. G. Mattingly. (1985). The motor theory of speech perception revised. Cognition, 21, 1-36.

Mattingly, I. G. & A. M. Liberman. (1985). Verticality unparalleled. (Comments on The Modularity of Mind, by J.A. Fodor. Cambridge: MIT Press). Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 8, 24-26.

Liberman, A. M. (1986). Brief comments on invariance in phonetic perception. In: J.S. Perkell and D.H. Klatt (Eds.), Invariance and variability of speech processes, (pp. 490-492). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Whalen, D. H., & A. M. Liberman. (1987). Speech perception takes precedence over nonspeech perception. Science, Vol. 23, 169-171.

Repp, B. H. & A. M. Liberman. (1987). Phonetic categories are flexible. In: S. Harnad (Ed.) Categorical Perception, (pp. 89-112). Cambridge University Press.

Mattingly, I. G. & A. M. Liberman. (1988). Specialized perceiving systems for speech and other biologically significant sounds. In G. M. Edelman, W. E. Gall, and W. M. Cowan (Eds.). Functions of the Auditory System. (pp. 775-793). New York: Wiley.

Liberman, A. M. & Mattingly, I. G. (1989). A specialization for speech perception. Science, 243, 489-494.

Liberman, A. M. (1989). Reading is hard just because listening is easy. In C. von Euler (Ed.), Wenner-Gren International Symposium Series: Brain and Reading. Hampshire, England: Macmillan. (pp. 197-205.)

Liberman, I. Y., Shankweiler, D., & Liberman, A. M. (1989). The alphabetic principle and learning to read. In D. Shankweiler & I. Y. Liberman (Eds.), Phonology and Reading Disability: Solving the Reading Puzzle. Research Monograph Series. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Liberman, I. Y., & Liberman, A. M. (1990). Whole language vs. Code Emphasis: Underlying assumptions and their implications for reading instruction. Annals of Dyslexia, 40, 51-76.

Mattingly, I.G. & A.M. Liberman. (1990). Speech and other auditory modules. In G.M. Edelman, W.E. Gall, and W.M. Cowan (Eds.) Signal and Sense: Local and Global Order in Perceptual Maps. New York: Wiley.

Liberman, A. M. (1991). Afterthoughts on Modularity and the Motor Theory. In I. G. Mattingly & M. Studdert-Kennedy (Eds.), Modularity and the Motor Theory of Speech Perception. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Liberman, A. M. & Mattingly, I. G. (1991). Modularity and the effects of experience. In R. R. Hoffman & D. S. Palermo (Eds.), Cognition and the Symbolic Processes, Vol. 3: Applied and Ecological Perspectives. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Liberman, A. M. (1991). Observations from the Sidelines. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 3, 429-433. Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Liberman, A. M. (1992). Plausibility, parsimony, and theories of speech. In J. Alegria, D. Holender, J. Junca de Morais, and M. Radeau, (Eds) Analytic Approaches to Human Cognition (pp. 25-40). Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers B.V.

Liberman, A. M. (1992). The relation of speech to reading and writing. In R. Frost and L. Katz, Eds. Orthography, Phonology, Morphology, and Meaning. North Holland Publishers: Elsevier.

Liberman, A. M. (in press). In speech perception, time is not what it seems. Proceedings of the conference on Temporal Information Processing in the Nervous System: Special Reference to Dyslexia and Dysphasia. The New York Academy of Sciences, New York (September 12-15, 1992).